Command Strategy 2016
Partnership for the Americas
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 UNCLASSIFIED
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………. 04
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL……………………………………………………….. 07
POVERTY AND INEQUALITY…………………………………………………... 07
FULFILLING THE PROMISE: 2016.………………...………………………………... 09
FRAMEWORK FOR THE FUTURE……………………………………… 10
GOVERNMENTAL ENTERPRISE…………………………………….….. 15
FORCES AND PEOPLE………………………………………………….. 16
FINANCIAL RESOURCES……………………………………………….. 18
OPERATIONALIZING THE STRATEGY………………………………………………...18
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 3 UNCLASSIFIED
United States Southern Command
The United States Southern Command ( USSOUTHCOM) Command Strategy for 2016 provides the method for how we will attain our vision and become a leading joint and
interagency organization seeking to support security, stability, and prosperity in the Americas. Our vision and strategy respond to the ever-constant mandate to meet our joint military requirements and to recognize the increasing importance of integrating all instruments of national power to meet the challenges of the future throughout the
As we move into the future, we are committed to building a focused,
interagency approach that will enable us to fulfill the promise of the Americas.
The word “promise” has two different, but equally important meanings. The first meaning is a mutual agreement between parties — an unbreakable bond. The second meaning is the intention to accomplish great things or to do something vital and important.
The United States Southern Command fully commits to meet both
definitions. We “promise” to be a good partner across the hemisphere as we face tough challenges together. We will also work with our partners to help unlock the “promise” of the future.
The goal of the strategy outlined in this document is to build lasting relationships and work cooperatively together in a strong partnership for the Americas!
Admiral, U.S. Navy
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 4 UNCLASSIFIED
This Command Strategy 2016 (CS-2016)
provides the framework for achieving USSOUTHCOM’s goals and objectives
for 2016. The framework defines the linkages, explores future challenges,
and determines the ways and means for USSOUTHCOM to assist in fulfilling the promise of the hemisphere. Finally, the document provides the way ahead for turning these concepts into the capabilities required to achieve success.
The Americas are inextricably linked. We celebrate our diversity and different
cultural traditions and histories, but we also recognize that we have much in
The potential for force-on-force military actions between two or more nations in
the region is relatively low; however, we face many other conditions and
challenges that threaten security, stability, and prosperity:
• Poverty and Inequality
FULFILLING THE PROMISE: 2016
We must work together, as partners, to unlock the “promise” of the future
prosperity in our shared hemisphere. Success in 2016 depends upon creating
a hemispheric security environment that is inclusive and beneficial to all. Our
vision, mission, and goals will, along with the cooperation of our interagency
partners and partner nations, lead us to fulfill the promise.
• The Mission Today: Conduct military operations and promote
security cooperation to achieve U.S. strategic objectives.
• Vision 2016: A leading joint and
interagency organization seeking
to support security, stability and
prosperity in the Americas.
1. Ensure Security
2. Enhance Stability
3. Enable Prosperity
o Governmental Enterprise;
4. Transform the Enterprise
The means are the resources we will use to enable the ways/concepts to
accomplish the ends/objectives. Our Forces, People, and Financial Resources
are the primary means we will rely upon to fulfill the promise.
OPERATIONALIZING THE STRATEGY
The Command Strategy provides overarching guidance for the United
States Southern Command. The Theater Planning Guidance (TPG) is the
next step in the command planning and resource allocation process, and will
support this strategy.
USSOUTHCOM – PARTNERSHIP FOR THE AMERICAS!
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 5 UNCLASSIFIED
This command strategy serves as the template that defines the goals, objectives, and concepts that will guide the command’s efforts as we look toward 2016. The strategy begins with a discussion of the common linkages that bind together the nations of our hemisphere. It then addresses the common challenges that affect the security, stability, and prosperity of all nations in the region. Finally, the document provides the way ahead for turning these concepts into capabilities that will achieve the command’s goals and objectives through 2016.
President George W. Bush tells us “the Western Hemisphere is our home. By virtue of geography, history, culture, demography, and economics, the United States is linked to our Hemispheric partners in ways unmatched elsewhere in the world.”1 These linkages, as outlined by the president, provide the basis for addressing the common challenges that affect the security, stability, and prosperity of all nations in the region. We are all one group of people in the Americas. We celebrate our diversity and different cultural traditions and histories, but we also recognize that we have much in common. Simply looking at a map underscores the obvious physical connection between our nations. However, we are tied together in ways far beyond physical proximity; the hemisphere is linked demographically, economically, socially, and politically.
There are significant and increasing demographic ties throughout the Western
Hemisphere. Today, approximately 15 percent of U.S. citizens claim Hispanic heritage. By the middle of the century, this could easily rise so that nearly one quarter of the population of the United States will trace its heritage to Latin America and the Caribbean. This hemisphere is our shared home. More than 500 million people – one half of the hemisphere’s population - live in Central and South America and the Caribbean. United Nations statistics show that in 2000, Latin America and the Caribbean consisted of 8.6 percent of the world’s population. While this percentage is expected to remain static, the actual population in real numbers may grow to 768 million by 2050.2 The people
of Latin America and the Caribbean, although from diverse ethnic heritage, are alike in many ways and share important similarities. Although there are many different dialects, this area uses four primary languages: English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Creole. While the U.S. is thought of as primarily an English-speaking nation, it is also the 5th largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. The U.S. and the rest of the region have significant cultural ties today and these will grow even stronger in the decades ahead.
1 President George W. Bush, National Security Presidential Directive/NSPD-32, Western Hemisphere Strategy
(Washington, DC: The White House, 2004) p.1.
2 World Population to 2300, (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division, 2005) p.33.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 6 UNCLASSIFIED
International commerce and trade between the United States and Latin American and Caribbean countries is strong, and experts expect this growth to continue. The total of all merchandise imported from Latin American and Caribbean countries to the United States increased 24.3 percent from 2004-2005, and exports from the United States to Latin American and Caribbean countries increased 17.6 percent during this same period.3 Total mercantile trade between the United States and Latin America was $409 billion in 2004, up from $301 billion in 1999, and accounting for approximately 17 percent of total U.S. world trade.4 Economic partnerships are strong today and we expect U.S. trade with Latin America to exceed trade with Europe and Japan by 2011.
As economic ties between our regional partners continue to grow, we must work together to increase prosperity across the region. The hemisphere shares other economic linkages, in addition to trade relationships. Latin America and the Caribbean are the largest sources of legal and illegal immigrants into the U.S., and these immigrants often send remittances back to their countries of origin.
Inter-American Development Bank studies estimate that $45 billion in
remittances flowed from the U.S. to Latin America in 2006. This is another sign of economic interdependency throughout the hemisphere.5 Technology provides both an economic and social linkage. The internet enables a connectivity that did not exist twenty years ago, and the hemisphere has embraced this new opportunity. From 2000-2007, growth of internet use in Central America was
623.9 percent; South American growth was 326.7 percent, Caribbean growth was 704.4 percent, and North American growth was 114.7 percent. Additionally, English and Spanish rank as the 1st and 4th top internet languages in the world respectively.6 Rapid communication exchanges and the growing use of the internet are clearly contributing to increased interactions and constitute a strong linkage. Energy is another factor involved in the economic linkages within the hemisphere. According to the Department of Energy, three (Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela) of the top four foreign energy suppliers to the U.S. are located within the Western Hemisphere. According to The Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy, the U.S. will need 31 percent more petroleum and 62 percent more natural gas in the next two decades.7 As the U.S. continues to require more petroleum and gas, Latin America is becoming a global energy leader with its large oil reserves and oil and gas production 3 Trade Stats Express – National Trade Data, Office of Trade and Industry Information, Manufacturing and Services, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005, December 18, 2006,
4 Stephen Johnson, The Heritage Foundation, Candidates Briefing Book Issues 2006, Latin America, December 8, 2006,
5 Inter-America Development Bank, Press Release, Migrant Remittances, October 18, 2006, December 7, 2006,
6 Internet World States, “Usage and Population Statistics”, September 18, 2006,
7 Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy, “Energy – The Lifeblood of America’s Economy”, December 10, 2006,
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 7 UNCLASSIFIED
We must work together to secure these energy resources and the
supporting infrastructure to enable regional prosperity.
Social and Political
In addition to demographic and economic ties with Latin America and the Caribbean, we share social and political values rooted in a common commitment to democracy, freedom, justice and respect for human dignity, human rights, and human values. The foundation for enabling these fundamental tenets rests upon a representative form of government. The citizens of this hemisphere believe the best form of government is a
democracy that represents the population. The first article of the Inter-American Democratic Charter clearly articulates this shared belief: “The people of the Americas have the right to democracy, and their governments have an obligation to promote and defend it. Democracy is essential for the social, political, and economic development of the peoples of the Americas.”8
Our shared values bind us together in the Americas today and enable strong
partnerships as we look to the promise of the future.9 These common traits also serve as the foundation for the enduring relationship we will need as we face the challenges of the future together.
The potential for force-on-force military conflict between two or more nations in the region is relatively low and is expected to remain so through 2016. However, the region faces many other challenges that threaten security, stability, and prosperity across the hemisphere. The foundation of society rests upon the ability of a nation to provide opportunity for prosperity and security for its people. Today, widespread poverty and inequality combined with corruption leaves many searching for the means for simple survival. A
lack of opportunity and competition for scarce resources lead to an increase in crime and provide opportunities for gangs and terrorists to flourish. These conditions lead to an environment that threatens the security and stability of the entire region.
Poverty and Inequality
Poverty and inequality are critical issues throughout the hemisphere. In many cases, they create the conditions from which security challenges arise to threaten democracies throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Today, the richest one tenth of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean earn 48 percent of the total income, while the poorest tenth earn only 1.6 percent. In industrialized countries, by 8 Organization of American States. “Inter-American Democratic Charter,” September 11, 2001,
9 Definition used for partner or partner nation: Partner Nations have shared understandings and common interests. While they do not have to agree on every issue or every problem they work together in cooperative efforts to resolve shared problems.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 8 UNCLASSIFIED
contrast, the top tenth receive 29.1 percent, while the bottom tenth earns 2.5 percent. This inequality gap negates the positive impact of growth on poverty reduction.10 There are extra-hemispheric factors that affect the region as well. For example, many nations buy Latin American raw materials and agricultural goods and then transport them outside the hemisphere for their own use. These short-term gains fail to create jobs needed for sustained economic growth and do not offer any incentive for reinvestment in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the case of agricultural products, Andres Oppenheimer reported, “The region will not win the war on poverty by
increasing its share of the world's shrinking agricultural trade. It would do well in spending more of its energies on producing more sophisticated exports.”11
Corruption impedes the rule of law and creates insecurity. Various studies point out that reducing corruption could save some nations in Latin America billions of dollars annually. Strong governmental institutions organized around transparent policies and processes, legitimate justice systems, and ethical leaders in all elements of the government are the components necessary to defeat corruption. While our hemisphere contains many representative governments, there are some relatively significant differences in what we each think of as democracy—elections alone do not guarantee democratic rule. Nations across the region agree that in true democracies, free governments should be accountable to their people and govern effectively. The United States recognizes eleven pillars of democracy and acknowledges the importance of minority rights; majority rule; basic human rights; limited governmental power; values of tolerance and compromise; social, political, and economic pluralism; sovereignty; government by the consent of the governed; legal
equality; legal due process; and free and fair elections. Governmental institutions that eliminate corruption and protect the civil rights and freedoms of those they govern are more likely to enable future security and prosperity.
Crime The growing threat from gangs is an outgrowth of underlying poverty and a lack of opportunity. Gang activity, much like terrorism, transcends borders and affects numerous countries in the region. Gang members are no longer resident solely in Central and South America; they create challenges throughout the Western Hemisphere. Gangs are highly complex organizations imbedded in many types of societies. They use technology in new ways to circumvent lawful authority and travel across national borders with relative impunity. Drug trafficking will remain a hemispheric challenge. While we have made great progress in our fight against drugs, we have not yet eliminated the threat. The demand for drugs in the United States remains strong and creates incentives for illegal 10 The World Bank Group, “Regional Overview, Latin America and the Caribbean,” December 8, 2006, 11 Andres Oppenheimer, “The Oppenheimer Report - THE OPPENHEIMER REPORT: U.N.: Latin America Suffers from Natural Resources `Curse'” The Miami Herald, September 8, 2005. United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 9 UNCLASSIFIED
The Andean Ridge remains the sole supplier of the world’s cocaine and a
provider of heroin consumed in the United States.12 Drug traffickers are constantly developing new means of preventing interference with
their illegal narcotics activities. As we modify our tactics, drug producers and
traffickers find innovative methods to develop the drugs and alternate trafficking routes. The drug traffickers of yesterday have become much more lethal today, and this trend is expected to continue. Narco-terrorists derive their funding and power from the sale of illicit drugs and have evolved into three primary groups in Colombia: the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC; the National Liberation Army, or ELN; and the United Self-Defense Forces, or AUC. These organizations have driven up the rates of homicide and kidnappings throughout the region. These groups and a
number of extremely violent gangs do not operate within traditional nation-state boundaries. They live among and terrorize the populace, and take advantage of ungoverned and under-governed spaces across the hemisphere.
Areas with lower levels of economic investment, development, and growth, provide a breeding ground for terrorism and the full range of criminal activities. Poverty, inequality, and corruption create an environment where sanctuaries for terrorist organizations can grow. Islamic radical groups are present in a number of these areas within the hemisphere, many hiding in plain sight in urban areas. These terrorist operations are supporting Islamic radical groups worldwide, and there is potential for terrorists to use permissive environments within the Western Hemisphere as launching points for devastating attacks. Groups in these areas raise money by both legal (religious donations, donations from local Arab businesses) and illegal means (extortions, insurance fraud, drug trafficking, weapons sales, document sales, commercial piracy) to support terrorists world- wide. Addressing the challenges posed by gangs, drugs, and terrorist threats requires the application of all instruments of national power including economic investment, judicial and legal reform. We must also deal with the underlying problems of unemployment, corruption, and a general lack of opportunity. We must encourage and assist in building partnerships across the region while working with inter-governmental organizations to ensure success.
Fulfilling the Promise: 2016
United States Southern Command’s mission follows national guidance, with special emphasis on the National Security Strategy and National Military Strategy. This command strategy also relies on guidance from our interagency partners. We use this input to derive our specified and implied tasks and objectives as we move toward fulfilling the promise of the future.
Security, stability, and increased prosperity in 2016 depend upon the creation of a hemispheric security environment that is inclusive and beneficial to all. Whether 12 National Drug Control Strategy, (The White House: 2006) p.19.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 10 UNCLASSIFIED
battling gangs or terrorism, we must find ways to focus the collective wisdom of all partners to defeat those groups who want to keep us from reaching our goals. The security challenges in our hemisphere are not traditional military threats, and are often interrelated and involve both state and non-state actors. These threats, challenges, and conditions require a partnering and interagency approach. Interagency coordination is an essential component of the USSOUTHCOM mission and enables the command to fulfill its full range of missions and effectively support our partners in Latin America and the Caribbean. This coordination enables us to prioritize and synchronize our efforts in a resource-constrained environment. Additionally, cabinet level strategic plans and strategic plans from numerous independent
establishments and government corporations provide valuable insights. This guidance enables the development of a strategy that is holistic and synchronized with our interagency partners.
A complete listing of this national-level guidance used in developing this strategy is located in Annex 1.
The Mission Today
The United States Southern Command’s mission is to conduct military
operations and promote security cooperation to achieve U.S. strategic
Our motto is simple – Partnership for the Americas. These four words capture our vision and our overarching strategy, objectives, and themes.
The United States Southern Command’s vision defines where the organization must go if we are to achieve our goals in 2016. As we look forward, USSOUTHCOM will transform into a leading joint and interagency organization seeking to support security, stability and prosperity in the Americas. This vision embodies our belief that the challenges we face require us to examine linkages between all of our partners and work collectively to ensure security, enhance stability, and enable prosperity in the Americas.
FRAMEWORK FOR THE FUTURE
Professor Harry Yarger, from the U.S. Army War College, explains that “In simplistic terms, strategy at all levels is the calculation of objectives, concepts, and resources within acceptable bounds of risk to create more favorable outcomes than might United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 11 UNCLASSIFIED otherwise exist by chance or at the hands of others.”13 The official Department of Defense definition of strategy is “a prudent idea or set of ideas for employing the instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives.” 14 One method of describing a strategy is through the use of ends/objectives, ways/concepts, and means/resources. Based on directives, goals, and concepts articulated in numerous national level
documents, USSOUTHCOM has developed four overarching goals with corresponding objectives.
GOAL #1 - Ensure Security
We will participate in and lead, when called upon, collective partnerships to ensure security within the Western Hemisphere. The most important mission we have is to protect our homeland. We ensure the forward defense of the United States by defending the southern approaches. We must maintain our ability to operate in and from the global commons of space, international waters, air, and cyberspace. Our ability to operate in and from the global commons is critical to the defense of the United States and our partners, and provides a stabilizing influence throughout the hemisphere. We cannot do this alone. Partnerships are critical to the success of the USSOUTHCOM mission, the U.S., and the nations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. As a result, every command activity, event, and task must focus on developing and strengthening enduring partnerships . We are committed to ensuring lasting and inclusive partnerships for the betterment of all.
OBJECTIVE 1.1 – Secure the U.S. from threats
1.1.a. Reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction by expanding military
support to programs like the Proliferation Security Initiative.
1.1.b. Counter threats close to their source by maintaining a forward defense
combined with fully funded theater security activities with our multinational partners.
1.1.c. In conjunction with initiatives like Proliferation Security and Panama’s Secure
Trade and Transportation, provide our partner nations sufficient access to information
and intelligence critical to anticipating and understanding new threats. Expand
multinational information sharing (MNIS) programs such as Participating Nations
Network (PNN) and Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System
(CENTRIXS) to facilitate information sharing. Ensure the development of the
information sharing agreements required to utilize the technology in place.
1.1.d. Increase intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance support to activities
working to reduce illicit trafficking and deny sanctuary to terrorist organizations in
13 Harry R. Yarger, Strategic Theory for the 21st Century: The Little Book on Big Strategy (Carlisle Barracks, PA:
Strategic Studies Institute, 2006) p.1.
14 United States, Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary and Associated Terms (Washington, DC:
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 12 UNCLASSIFIED
1.1.e. Enable partner nation military and security forces and use interagency
activities to improve partner nation capability to support regional and global coalition operations through initiatives such as the Global Peace Operations Initiative. Work to improve partner nation holistic capabilities by improving our partners’ ability to synchronize and employ their interagency assets.
1.1.f. Ensure the forward defense of the U.S. against transnational threats by
increasing support to initiatives such as Enduring Friendship (EF) and Regional Air Sovereignty Initiative(RASI) to improve partner nation security capabilities.
1.1.g. Identify third party nation alternatives to accept migrants and prepare and maintain facilities for responding to mass migration operations.
1.1.h. In conjunction with the Regional War on Terrorism Plan, continue to build cooperation initiatives with partner nations in order to destroy the narcotics connections to terror networks and other terrorism support activities.
1.1.i. Increase our efforts to support the disruption of illegal narcotics production and interdiction of illegal narcotics trafficking.
OBJECTIVE 1.2 – Enhance Hemispheric Security
1.2.a. Use regional and hemispheric meetings across the interagency and with
partner nations to implement security-related directives and to collectively better define and understand the security threats affecting the Western Hemisphere.
1.2.b. Work through politico-military and diplomatic channels to enhance U.S.
freedom of movement throughout the Western Hemisphere.
1.2.c. Strengthen partnerships to defeat global terrorism, prevent terror attacks, deny sanctuary for terrorist organizations, deny operational areas for terrorist
organizations, and ensure these organizations do not receive political legitimacy within the Western Hemisphere.
GOAL #2 - Enhance Stability
Stable environments help reduce the threat of extremism and are likely to support peace and prosperity while encouraging investment. A stable environment at the national level filters stability through the intra- state, local community, and family to the individual. An individual living in a stable environment can take advantage of opportunities that enable support for family, local community, intra- state, nation state, and hemispheric growth. The United States Southern Command will help focus interagency efforts to move beyond traditional security cooperation activities such combined-multinational exercises, counter- narcotics assistance, and defense and military contacts to integrate combined, joint, and interagency efforts. The United States Southern Command will actively support interagency, non-governmental entities
and public/private institutions to enhance regional stability.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 13 UNCLASSIFIED
OBJECTIVE 2.1 – Ensure Cooperative U.S. Partner Nation Relationships
2.1.a. Work with our interagency partners to coordinate U.S. Government actions to strengthen and form strategic partnerships with key regional nations.
2.1.b. Advocate for the negotiation of security agreements throughout the
hemisphere. Explore major non-NATO ally status designations for countries that show a willingness to further positive relations with the U.S. and who can use this designation as a stepping-stone to additional security agreements.
2.1.c. Work with partner nations in Latin America to develop regional Centers of
Excellence in the fields of search and rescue, combat search and rescue, noncommissioned officer leadership, counter-terrorism, humanitarian aid, disaster relief, human rights, and planning and training in order to provide education, training, and research opportunities.
2.1.d. Work with the Office of the Secretary of Defense and Congress to consider
de-linking the American Service-members’ Protection Act (ASPA) from foreign
assistance and aggressively support FMF for our partner nations allowing them to acquire U.S. military articles, services, and training.
OBJECTIVE 2.2 – Enhance Consequence Management and Disaster Response
Capabilities of our Partner Nations
2.2.a. Increase current humanitarian exercise frequency and sustain humanitarian assistance funding.
2.2.b. Focus interagency efforts and forge nongovernmental and private
organization partnerships to fund infrastructure improvements, humanitarian
assistance, pre-positioned warehouses, and disaster training within the hemisphere.
2.2.c. Encourage participation of partner nation planners in U.S. government
disaster response and consequence management exercises.
2.2.d. Encourage partner nations to work regionally, share information, and become more interoperable with one another to share the burden of disaster response and consequence management.
2.2.e Fully engage the use of the Medical Readiness Training Exercise (MEDRETE) program as a premier U.S. engagement effort and medical care provider in the region.
GOAL #3 - Enable Prosperity
Hemispheric prosperity in 2016 requires a coordinated effort, using all instruments of national power to include diplomatic, information, military, economic, finance, intelligence, and legal. Future success also requires employment of all available instruments including the interagency and coordination with non-governmental organizations. The synergistic effect of these efforts will harness the power of the entire U.S. Government to work with partner nations to enable peace and prosperity throughout the Western Hemisphere.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 14 UNCLASSIFIED
OBJECTIVE 3.1 – Ensure Favorable Security Conditions By Enabling Effective
3.1.a. Provide enabling capabilities to focus and integrate interagency-wide efforts to address the full range of regional challenges.
3.1.b. Upon modification of the Foreign Assistance Act and Arms Export Control
Act, leverage military support to law enforcement by developing a broad-based
program to help train Latin American countries in the area of internal security with a focus on human rights and democracy.
3.1.c. Obtain additional Cooperative Security Location authorities, beyond aerial counter-drug operations, to help ensure illicit power structures do not exploit undergoverned spaces. Pursue additional presence in the USSOUTHCOM area to provide access for contingency and continuous operations.
3.1.d. Continue support to the Global Peace Operations Initiative and the
development of the Conference of the Armed Forces of Central America battalion for stability operations within the region.
3.1.e. Assist nations to develop additional capabilities that ensure effective
governance of their territories, specifically in under-governed territory.
3.1.f. Support partner nation interagency development to effectively synchronize
their interagency operations in a cooperative manner.
OBJECTIVE 3.2 – Help Ensure Political and Economic Freedom with Respect for Human Dignity
3.2.a. Support the expansion of the State Partnership Program at the U.S. national level to encompass activities to strengthen civil-to-civil partnerships in areas such as agriculture, commerce, and justice to help build the institutions required to support democracy within the partner nations.
3.2.b. Work with partner nations on the development of their national security
strategies to help them better understand the linkages of their entire governmental apparatus, as it pertains to their internal security, sovereignty, and cooperation.
3.2.c. Continue to work with the partner nation military and security forces to instill the concepts and values of security force subordination to civilian authorities, respect for human rights, and the rule of law.
3.2.d. Work through the U.S. interagency to better define DoD’s role in partner
nation socio-economic and political development processes.
3.3.e. Support the investment in education by aggressively working with U.S.
military schools and training centers to surge quotas for Latin American and Caribbean personnel in order to re-build the interaction and relationships with the future leaders of our partner nations and provide them a first hand view of life in the U.S. United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 15 UNCLASSIFIED
3.3.f. As military personnel from a democratic nation, continue to show our respect toward representative governments and continue to discuss and explain during conferences and training events the role of military subordination to elected civilian leaders.
GOAL #4 - Transform the Enterprise
The United States Southern Command is working to build a culture of innovation to meet the challenges and opportunities for the 21st Century. We will work to transform USSOUTHCOM from a traditional military organization into a Joint Interagency Security Command by 2016. We envision a future organization that has a regional focus seen through an interagency lens. This organization will have the capability to reach across
traditional government stovepipes and provide holistic solutions.
OBJECTIVE 4.1 – Transform USSOUTHCOM into a Joint Interagency Security
4.1.a. Improve synchronization of operations and activities between USSOUTHCOM and other U.S. government organizations operating in this part of the world to create a collaborative, effective, and efficient command.
4.1.b. Aggressively engage interagency partner decision-makers and integrate
personnel from these agencies on a full time basis into the USSOUTHCOM staff. 4.1.c. Ensure all USSOUTHCOM exercises and conferences include participation
from our interagency partners.
4.1.d. Work with the Joint Staff and Office of the Secretary of Defense to support our Joint Interagency Security Command concept in future Unified Command Plans.
4.1.e. Work aggressively with the Joint Task Assignment Process to develop a new system for funding the Combatant Commands.
4.1.f. Ensure USSOUTHCOM has a 21st century facility to meet the challenges of the future. The new facility must enable discussions across the command and the interagency as well as throughout the region encompassing all levels of unclassified, proprietary, and classified information.
OBJECTIVE 4.2 – Conduct Internal Business Processes Effectively and Efficiently
4.2.a. Develop a planning process synchronized with the command strategy and an annual battle rhythm associated with budget cycles.
4.2.b. Flatten the organizational structure to allow for decentralized decision making and short decision paths that will better support creativity, adaptability, and flexibility in order to meet organizational requirements.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 16 UNCLASSIFIED
4.2.c. Develop a command wide assessment system to ensure that the outcomes of our resourcing and concepts are in line with our desired objectives.
4.2.d. Inform our national-level policy and decision makers so that they understand USSOUTHCOM’s mission as well as the strategic importance of Central and South America and the Caribbean to ensure we have the means to enhance stability, enable prosperity, and ensure the forward defense of the United States in this part of the world.
The “means” are the resources we will use to enable the “ways/concepts” to accomplish the “ends/objectives.” Tangible means include utilization of USSOUTHCOM’s forces, people, equipment, money, and facilities. Intangible means include applying our courage, innovative skills, and intellect.
Forces and People
The word “we” used throughout this document includes all those superb professionals across the command — in the headquarters, military groups, components, joint task forces, and interagency partners. Our success also depends on the active and reserve components of the Department of Defense, the Joint Staff, as well as governmental and public academic institutions. “Partnership for the Americas” is more than just our motto; it is the cornerstone for how we do business. As stated by former Secretary of
State Colin Powell in the combined U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development Strategic Plan: “Our organizations share a noble mission: to create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community.”15 In addition to our need to partner to achieve shared goals, we must partner out of necessity as explained by our current Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice: “In this world it is impossible to draw neat, clear lines between our security interests, our development efforts, and our democratic ideals. American diplomacy must integrate and advance all of these goals
together.”16 Our Security Cooperation Officers are a key group within the command’s enterprise. They conduct interagency coordination within the U.S. Embassy Country Teams. While they report directly to the USSOUTHCOM Commander, they are members of the Country Team and, like other interagency representatives who work in the Embassy, are responsive to the Ambassador. The Military Groups and Country Teams are the “forward elements” that enable the command’s success. USSOUTHCOM accomplishes much of its mission through its service components:
U.S. Army South (USARSO): Located at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USARSO forces include aviation, intelligence, communication, and logistics units. USARSO 15 Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, “Message from the Secretary,” U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2004-2009 (Washington, DC: 2004).
16 Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, Remarks, Georgetown School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, (Washington, DC: January 18, 2006).
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 17 UNCLASSIFIED
supports regional disaster relief and counterdrug efforts. USARSO also
exercises oversight, planning, and logistical support for humanitarian and civic
assistance projects throughout the region in support of the USSOUTHCOM
Theater Security Cooperation Strategy. USARSO provides Title X and Executive
Agent responsibilities throughout the Latin American and Caribbean region.
Twelfth Air Force (Air Force South or AFSOUTH): Located at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona, AFSOUTH consists of a staff; an Air and Space Operations Center for command and control of air activity in the USSOUTHCOM area and an Air Force operations group responsible for Air Force forces in the area. AFSOUTH serves as the executive agent for forward operating locations; provides joint/combined radar surveillance architecture oversight; provides intra- theater airlift; and supports USSOUTHCOM’s Theater Security Cooperation Strategy through regional disaster relief exercises and counter-drug operations. AFSOUTH also provides oversight, planning, execution, and logistical support for humanitarian and civic assistance projects and hosts a number of Airmen-to- Airmen conferences.
U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command (USNAVSO): Located at Mayport Naval Base, Florida, USNAVSO exercises command and control over all U.S. naval operations in the USSOUTHCOM area including naval exercises, maritime operations, and port visits. USNAVSO is also the executive agent for the operation of the cooperative security location at Comalapa, El Salvador, which provides basing in support of aerial counter narco-terrorism operations.
U.S. Marine Corps Forces South (USMARFORSOUTH): Located in Miami, Florida, USMARFORSOUTH commands all United States Marine Corps Forces (MARFORs) assigned to USSOUTHCOM; advises USSOUTHCOM on the proper employment and support of MARFORs; conducts deployment, redeployment planning and execution of assigned/attached MARFORs; and accomplishes other operational missions as assigned.
U.S. Special Operations Command South (USSOCSOUTH): Located at Homestead Air Reserve Base near Miami, Florida, USSOCSOUTH provides the primary theater contingency response force and plans, prepares for, and conducts special operations in support of USSOUTHCOM. USSOCSOUTH controls all Special Operations Forces in the region and also establishes and operates a Joint Special Operations Task Force when required.
We also have three Joint Task Forces (JTF) with unique missions within the hemisphere.
Joint Task Force Bravo (JTF - B): Located at Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras, JTF -Bravo operates a forward, all-weather day/night C-5-capable airbase. JTF - Bravo organizes multilateral exercises and supports, in cooperation with our partner nations, humanitarian and civic assistance, counterdrug, contingency and disaster relief operations in Central America.
Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF - GTMO): Located at U.S. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, JTF - Guantanamo conducts detention and interrogation operations in support of the War on Terrorism, coordinates and implements detainee screening operations, and supports law enforcement and war crimes United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 18 UNCLASSIFIED investigations as well as Military Commissions for Detained Enemy Combatants.
JTF - Guantanamo is also prepared to support mass migration operations at
Naval Station GTMO.
Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S): Located in Key West, Florida, JIATFSouth is an interagency task force that serves as the catalyst for integrated and synchronized interagency counter-drug operations and is responsible for the detection and monitoring of suspect air and maritime drug activity in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern Pacific. JIATF- South also collects, processes, and disseminates counter-drug information for interagency operations.
The United States Southern Command depends upon multiple sources of funding to accomplish our full spectrum of missions. Our primary funding sources currently include:
• The Department of the Army, in its role as the command’s executive agency;
• The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Counter-Narcotics);
• The Department of State, for theater security cooperation programs including
Foreign Military Financing, International Military Education and Training, Global Peace Operations Initiative, and Economic Support Funds;
• The Services and Special Operations Command in their roles as force providers through their respective component commands;
• Other Department of Defense programs such as Combatant Commander
Initiative Funds, Official Representative Funds, and Command and Control
Initiatives Program. The goals and objectives laid out in the USSOUTHCOM Strategy 2016 will continue to place a high demand on current funding sources. Simultaneously, we must reach beyond traditional ways of doing business and build a culture of entrepreneurial innovation. As we work to develop and strengthen partnerships with other governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations, we will look for opportunities to cut across organizational lines and engage in innovative ways to achieve our goals. By building on each other’s efforts, we can magnify the effects of individual activities and resources to change from incremental steps forward to a
quantum leap in progress. However, one enduring goal remains--we will continue to exercise good stewardship and accountability for all resources entrusted to the command and its personnel.
OPERATIONALIZING THE STRATEGY
The United States Southern Command uses a Five-Phase Strategic Planning Model to align the organizational mission with the resources needed to accomplish the strategy. This five-phase model ensures unity of effort throughout the command so that every element is working toward the achievement of the objectives set forth in the command strategy.
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 19 UNCLASSIFIED
Phase One: The USSOUTHCOM Strategy 2016 constitutes Phase One of the
USSOUTHCOM Strategic Planning Model. This document provides the ten-year strategy, setting forth and ensuring the efforts of the command are along the correct path. Strategy 2016 will be a living document and reviewed at least every two years.
Phase Two: The USSOUTHCOM Theater Planning Guidance (TPG) serves as the practical application of the Strategy 2016. The TPG is a five-year look that includes core capabilities approved by the USSOUTHCOM Board of Directors. The TPG objectives and goals are linked to the goals and objectives in the 2016 Strategy. The TPG will be reviewed bi-annually.
Phase Three: During this phase, we develop the fiscally informed but unconstrained Prioritized Required Capabilities List (PRCL). Capabilities are based on a review of all national-level guidance and support the concepts established in the USSOUTHCOM Strategy 2016. The PRCL identifies areas to accept risk.
Phase Four: This is the initial resource allocation phase in the model, in which the command builds a fiscally constrained list of capabilities that identifies shortfalls and articulates risks based on resourcing priorities. This step provides direction to all USSOUTHCOM components and subordinate commands by prioritizing requirements and activities to ensure the command has the best mix of capabilities attainable within resource constraints. This enables the board of directors to determine the attainable capabilities in a resource-constrained environment and gives the activity managers the
ability to execute programs.
Phase Five: Assessment is a critical activity throughout the process. Periodic
evaluations of strategies, tactics, and action programs are essential to assessing
success of the entire process. Assessments determine the overall level of performance and effectiveness and show progress toward our stated objectives. A critical assessment identifies whether we are doing the right activities, and how well we are doing the right activities. Ultimately, assessments allow us to gain the insight necessary to reallocate resources, modify the objectives, or change the strategy in order to continue working toward the achievement of our vision.
Latin American and Caribbean nations are strategically important to the national security and economic future of the United States. The long-term interests of the U.S. are best served by a hemisphere of stable, secure, and democratic nations. A prosperous future for all rests on a foundation of shared values; efficient governments; free societies; and open, market based economies.
In this hemisphere, we are linked demographically, economically, socially, and
politically. These linkages form the foundation from which USSOUTHCOM seeks to be a strategic partner within the region. Every activity, event, and function should focus on developing and strengthening partnerships. Our programs are designed to work with each of our partners to build capability and capacity and to learn from one another. Together, we will face the very real challenges of this region including poverty, inequality, corruption, terrorism, and crime. United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 20 uNCLASSIFIED
Most important, USSOUTHCOM will help fulfill the promise of a better and more secure hemisphere. We promise to be a good partner as we face the challenges together, and we will work with other nations in the hemisphere to help fulfill the promise of the future. Long-term success depends upon the creation of a hemispheric security environment that is inclusive and beneficial to all. Given appropriate resources, we are confident that this command strategy will achieve our goals and objectives. While conducting military operations and security cooperation with the nations in the region, we will transform the USSOUTHCOM enterprise into a leading joint and interagency organization. These efforts will support security, stability, and prosperity in the Americas and thereby provide for the forward defense of the United States.
USSOUTHCOM – PARTNERSHIP FOR THE AMERICAS!
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 21 UNCLASSIFIED
ANNEX - National Guidance
• U.S. Constitution (1787)
• U.S. Code Title 10, Chapter 6, (2005)
• National Security Strategy of the United States of America (2006)
• National Security Presidential Directive/NSPD32, Western Hemisphere Strategy (2004)
• U.S. Unified Command Plan (2006)
• National Defense Strategy of the United States of America (2005)
• National Military Strategy of the United States of America (2004)
• Department of Defense Strategic Planning Guidance (2006)
• Department of Defense Security Cooperation Guidance (2005)
• Department of Defense Quadrennial Defense Review Report (2006)
• Department of Defense Priorities (2006-2008)
• Many NSPDs (especially NSPD 32-WHEM 2004)
• National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction (2002)
• National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (2003)
• National Strategy for Homeland Security (2002)
• National Strategy for Maritime Security (2005)
• National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (2005)
• National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets (2003)
• National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (2003)
• Department of Defense Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support (2005)
• National Military Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction (2006)
• National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations (2006)
• National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism (2006)
• U.S. Department of Agriculture Strategic Plan (2002)
• U.S. Department of Commerce Strategic Plan (2004)
• U.S. Department of Education Strategic Plan (2002)
• U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Plan (2006)
• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Strategic Plan (2004)
• U.S. Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan (2004)
• U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Strategic Plan (2006)
• U.S. Department of the Interior Strategic Plan (2006)
• U.S. Department of Justice Strategic Plan (2003)
• U.S. Department of Labor Strategic Plan (2006)
• U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development Strategic Plan (2004)
• U.S. Department of Transportation Strategic Plan (2006)
• U.S. Department of the Treasury Strategic Plan (2003)
• The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States (2005)
• National Drug Control Strategy (2006)
• United States International Trade Commission Strategic Plan (2003)
• Overseas Private Investment Corporation Strategic Plan (2003)
• Environmental Protection Agency Strategic Plan (2006)
• Federal Maritime Commission Strategic Plan (2003)
• Federal Trade Commission Strategic Plan (2006)
• National Transportation Safety Board Strategic Plan (2006)
• House Armed Services Committee Defense Review Report (2006)
United States Southern Command Strategy 2016 22 UNCLASSIFIED